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Click on any of the ICE-9 questions above to jump directly to its standards connections on this page

 

The ICE-9 questions (0 - 9) connect to California content standards as shown here, sorted by ICE-9 question, grade level, and area (English-Language Arts, History-Social Science, Mathematics, and Science).

 

These connections are only a start.  Make similar connections to educational content standards of other states.  Connect to whatever your students are studying.

 

Defined broadly, technology connects to virtually everything.  Imagine the world without any created tools, techniques, or systemic methods.  That is the impact of technology.  Use it as a hook to interest students in everything they should care about.

 

ICE-9

Lesson

Grade

Level

Content Area

Focus within Area

Std #

Description of Standard

Connection Between Standard and ICE-9

0 5 English-Language Arts Reading 2.3 Discern main ideas and concepts presented in texts, identifying and assessing evidence that supports those ideas. Nanotechnology essay.  This two-page reading on nanotechnology gives an overview of the emerging technology of manipulating molecules.  Without referring to the ICE-9 questions, it answers them, giving background on nanotechnology, how it is changing, what its costs & benefits are, and how we evaluate it.  This wide-ranging material provides fertile ground for students to discern concepts, identify and assess evidence, and and relate this to other sources.  Because nanotechnology promise science fiction magic in our future, students may be particularly engaged.
0 5 English-Language Arts Reading 2.4 Draw inferences, conclusions, or generalizations about text and support them with textual evidence and prior knowledge. Nanotechnology essay.  This two-page reading on nanotechnology gives an overview of the emerging technology of manipulating molecules.  Without referring to the ICE-9 questions, it answers them, giving background on nanotechnology, how it is changing, what its costs & benefits are, and how we evaluate it.  This wide-ranging material provides fertile ground for students to discern concepts, identify and assess evidence, and and relate this to other sources.  Because nanotechnology promise science fiction magic in our future, students may be particularly engaged.
0 5 English-Language Arts Writing 2.4 Write persuasive letters or compositions: (a) State a clear position in support of a proposal. (b) Support a position with relevant evidence. (c) Follow a simple organizational pattern. (d) Address reader concerns. Based on the two-page nanotechnology reading, students write a persuasive speech to the United Nations, making the case for or against development of nanotechnology.  Evidence can be drawn from both the reading and student's experience.  This is conducted both as a pre-test and a post-test.  In the post-test, ICE-9 may emerge as a useful structure for the student's composition.
0 6 English-Language Arts Reading 2.3 Connect and clarify main ideas by identifying their relationships to other sources and related topics. Nanotechnology essay.  This two-page reading on nanotechnology gives an overview of the emerging technology of manipulating molecules.  Without referring to the ICE-9 questions, it answers them, giving background on nanotechnology, how it is changing, what its costs & benefits are, and how we evaluate it.  This wide-ranging material provides fertile ground for students to discern concepts, identify and assess evidence, and and relate this to other sources.  Because nanotechnology promise science fiction magic in our future, students may be particularly engaged.
0 6 English-Language Arts Writing 2.5 Write persuasive compositions: (a) State a clear position on a proposition or proposal. (b) Support the position with organizaed and relevant evidence. (c) Anticipate and address reader concerns and counterarguments. Based on the two-page nanotechnology reading, students write a persuasive speech to the United Nations, making the case for or against development of nanotechnology.  Evidence can be drawn from both the reading and student's experience.  This is conducted both as a pre-test and a post-test.  In the post-test, ICE-9 may emerge as a useful structure for the student's composition.
0 7 English-Language Arts Reading 2.0 Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material.  They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose. Nanotechnology essay.  This two-page reading on nanotechnology gives an overview of the emerging technology of manipulating molecules.  Without referring to the ICE-9 questions, it answers them, giving background on nanotechnology, how it is changing, what its costs & benefits are, and how we evaluate it.  This wide-ranging material provides fertile ground for students to discern concepts, identify and assess evidence, and and relate this to other sources.  Because nanotechnology promise science fiction magic in our future, students may be particularly engaged.
0 7 English-Language Arts Writing 2.4 Write persuasive compositions: (a) State a clear position in support of a proposition or proposal. (b) Describe the points in support of the position, employing well-articulated evidence. (c) Anticipate and address reader concerns and counterarguments. Based on the two-page nanotechnology reading, students write a persuasive speech to the United Nations, making the case for or against development of nanotechnology.  Evidence can be drawn from both the reading and student's experience.  This is conducted both as a pre-test and a post-test.  In the post-test, ICE-9 may emerge as a useful structure for the student's composition.
0 8 English-Language Arts Reading 2.0 Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material.  They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose. Nanotechnology essay.  This two-page reading on nanotechnology gives an overview of the emerging technology of manipulating molecules.  Without referring to the ICE-9 questions, it answers them, giving background on nanotechnology, how it is changing, what its costs & benefits are, and how we evaluate it.  This wide-ranging material provides fertile ground for students to discern concepts, identify and assess evidence, and and relate this to other sources.  Because nanotechnology promise science fiction magic in our future, students may be particularly engaged.
0 8 English-Language Arts Writing 2.4 Write persuasive compositions: (a) Include a well-defined thesis (i.e., one that makes a clear and knowledgeable judgment). (b) Present detailed evidence, examples, and reasoning to support arguments, differentiating between facts and opinions. (c) Provide details, reasons, and examples, arranging them effectively by anticipating reader concerns and counterarguments. Based on the two-page nanotechnology reading, students write a persuasive speech to the United Nations, making the case for or against development of nanotechnology.  Evidence can be drawn from both the reading and student's experience.  This is conducted both as a pre-test and a post-test.  In the post-test, ICE-9 may emerge as a useful structure for the student's composition.
0 10 History-Social Science World History, Culture, & Geography: The Modern World 10.3.2 Examine how scientific and technological changes and new forms of energy brought about massive social, economic, and cultural change (e.g., the inventions and discoveries of James Watt, Eli Whitney, Henry Bessemer, Louis Pasteur, Thomas Edison). Massive social, economic, and cultural change strains the capability of people to adapt.  Unlike plants and animals adapting to new environments, humans have intellect, which makes them highly flexible.  Applying our intelligence requires that we understand the situation we're in; how do you think the people who lived during the Industrial Revolution understood the changes taking place?  Given the great advantage of looking back on the era, so you know what happened and can read various analyses, how would you understand the scientific and technological changes?  Try using the template of questions from KnowledgeContext to understand the new developments.  For each technology invented, answer questions such as why do we use it, where did it come from, how does it work, and how does it change us.  How might practicing on the Industrial Revolution help us better understand the massive changes occurring in our own Information Revolution?  Analogies, including historical parallels, often illuminate complex issues.
0 12 History-Social Science Principles of Economics 12.4.2 Describe the current economy and labor market including the types of goods and services produced, types of skills workers need, the effect of rapid technological change, and the impact of international competition. Labor is tied to the technology of work.  In ancient times that technology changed very slowly.  Stone tools and, later, the plow were the same for parent, child, and grandchild.  The Industrial Revolution accelerated change, introducing new occupations and eliminating old ones.  As disruptive as that was, changes occurred every few generations.  Current technology is evolving and changing the market for labor in a matter of years, just a fraction of a single generation.  This values skills for adapting to change and reduces in value skills for operating specific technology, which has dwindling life span.  Adapting to change requires conceptual and contextual understanding.  It requires critical thinking skills as more and more manual labor is exported internationally to lesser-developed countries with much lower labor costs.
0 8-12 Mathematics Geometry 22 Students know the effect of rigid motions on figures in the coordinate plane and space, including rotations, translations, and reflections. Leverage.  Given the type of lever and the position of the fulcrum, calculate the path of one end of a lever given movement of the other.  Given that an ideal lever can neither consume nor perform work, calculate how much a lever multiplies your strength (force) compared to how much it divides (or fractionally multiplies) the distance you move it.
1 5 English-Language Arts Reading 1.4 Know abstract, derived roots and affixes from Greek and Latin and use this knowledge to analyze the meaning of complex words (e.g., controversial). What is technology?  One answer is "tools that extend our abilities."  Knowledge of roots and affixes reveals this definition in our language.  Television is "far seeing;" microscope is "small see;" nanotechnology is "very small or one billionth technology;" automobile is "self moving;" locomotive is "from a place moving;" and many more.
1 5 Science Investigation & Experimentation 6a Classify objects (e.g. rocks, plant, leaves) based on appropriate criteria. 20 Questions classifies technology in the setting of a competitive gameshow, motivating students to devise an approach to classification and to figure out what makes a question powerful.
1 6 History-Social Science World History & Geography: Ancient Civilizations 6.1.1 Describe the hunter-gatherer societies, including the development of tools and the use of fire. Development of tools and the use of fire, the first technologies, may have predated language, so conveying an understanding of them was likely done by demonstrating their use.  (Arthur C. Clarke's 2001 offers a fictional version, in which an alien artifact imparts an understanding of their use through some unknown method.)  Contrast this non-verbal demonstration with the approach used in today's schools, where the usage of technology is conveyed in lecture, books, and on-line tutorials.  As technology changes more rapidly, it becomes more important to understand it as a concept rather than a specific thing to use.  The concepts of technology include patterns that span the earliest tools, the use of fire, and the most modern “high tech.”
1 7 English-Language Arts Reading 1.2 Use knowledge of Greek, Latin, and Anglo-Saxon roots and affixes to understand content-area vocabulary. What is technology?  One answer is "tools that extend our abilities."  Knowledge of roots and affixes reveals this definition in our language.  Television is "far seeing;" microscope is "small see;" nanotechnology is "very small or one billionth technology;" automobile is "self moving;" locomotive is "from a place moving;" and many more.
1 7 History-Social Science World History & Geography: Medieval & Early Modern Times 7.3.5 Trace the historic influence of such discoveries as tea, the manufacture of paper, wood block printing, the compass, and gunpowder. Technology is often not an object, but a method.  Tea was not invented, but the cultivation and preparation of tea leaves is knowledge that extends our abilities.  The method of wood block printing is more important than a wood block.  The method of manufacturing gunpowder was more important than the gunpowder itself.  One definition of technology is something that extends our abilities, making something faster, more efficient or safer.  Identify developments in China in the Middle Ages that satisfy this definition.  What advantages did these technologies have over manual methods?  How were these important to the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures?
1 7 Science Life Science 6i Students know how levers confer mechanical advantage and how the application of this principle applies to the muscoskeletal system. Teacher introduces concept of technology with a wooden board and block, used as a lever and fulcrum to allow a student to lift the teacher off the floor.  Discuss trading force for distance, depending on placement of fulcrum.  Discuss definition of work = force x distance to show that levers do not change the amount of work performed.
1 8 Mathematics Geometry 1 Students demonstrate understanding by identifying and giving examples of undefined terms, axioms, theorems, and inductive and deductive reasoning. Induction is elemental to mathematics, science, and preparing for technological change.  Inductive reasoning is introduced in geometry to show that relationships true for specific geometric shapes are also true for similar shapes.  Scientific experimentation relies on the applicability of results derived in the laboratory to the Universe in general.  Preparing for technological change is predicated on the application of understanding gained about specific, current technology to future, yet-to-be-invented technology.
1 11 History-Social Science US History & Geography: Continuity & Change in the 20th Century 11.5.7 Discuss the rise of mass production techniques, the growth of cities, the impact of new technologies (e.g., the automobile, electricity), and the resulting prosperity and effect on the American landscape.  Technology as hardware, data, and method extends our abilities.  Identify the technologies involved in mass production and growth of cities.  What was the result?  How would America of the 1920s be different if those technologies had not existed?
1 5-7 Mathematics Mathematical Reasoning 2.2 Apply strategies and results from simpler problems to more complex problems. In the game of 20 Questions, each yes/no question separates the remaining possibilities into two groups and eliminates one of them.  In a binary search, the remaining possibilities are divided into two equal groups.  These can be the most powerful questions.  If all 20 questions were asked before any answers given, the number of possibilities that could be differentiated would be two to the power of 20.  Since the answer to each question can influence the following questions, how many possibilities can be differentiated?
2 5 Science Investigation & Experimentation 6f Select appropriate tools (e.g., thermometers, meter sticks, balances, and graduated cyclinders) and make quantitative observations. Why do we use technology?  One reason is to make quantitative measurements.  What technology do we use for this?  How would you classify these technologies into more specific ways we measure?  How would time, weight, temperature, size, shape, and relationshop map to the technologies we use?
2 6 History-Social Science World History & Geography: Ancient Civilizations 6.7.8 Discuss the legacies of Roman art and architecture, technology and science, literature, language, and law. Roman technology included cement and aqueducts.  Research this era for other technologies and analyze their uses.  Common uses for technology are for communication, medicine, exploration, innovation, shelter, entertainment, trade, battle, and transportation.  Can you find examples of Roman technology in each of these categories?  Are there other categories?]
2 6 Science Earth Science 4 Many phenomena on the Earth's surface are affected by the transfer of energy through radiation and convection currents. Consider technology that relies on these phenomena: sailing ships, water wheels, hydroelectric dams, windmills.  Why do we use these technologies?  Have the reasons changed as the technologies have changed?
2 6 Science Investigation & Experimentation 7b Select and use appropriate tools and technology (including calculators, computers, balances, spring scales, microscopes, and binoculars) to perform tests, collect data, and display data. Why do we use technology?  One reason is to make quantitative measurements.  What technology do we use for this?  How would you classify these technologies into more specific ways we measure?  How would time, weight, temperature, size, shape, and relationshop map to the technologies we use?
2 7 Science Investigation & Experimentation 7a Select and use appropriate tools and technology (including calculators, computers, balances, spring scales, microscopes, and binoculars) to perform tests, collect data, and display data. Why do we use technology?  One reason is to make quantitative measurements.  What technology do we use for this?  How would you classify these technologies into more specific ways we measure?  How would time, weight, temperature, size, shape, and relationshop map to the technologies we use?
2 12 History-Social Science Principles of American Democracy 12.8.2 Describe the role of electronic, broadcast, print media, and the Internet as means of communication in American politics.  Communication is basic to American politics and human society as a whole.  Because of this, new technology is continually developed to extend our ability to communicate.  The KnowledgeContext timeline of technological invention shows the introduction of key communication tools like printing, radio, TV, and the Internet.  What are the common threads in how these technologies have been used?  What changes to American political life have those technologies developed in recent centuries had?
2 12 History-Social Science Principles of Economics 12.6.3 Understand the changing role of international political borders and territorial sovereignty in a global economy. Communication, trade, and transportation are three reasons we use technology and they are a force behind the changing role of international political borders.  Consider what technologies have been used for communication, trade, and transportation and analyze their impact.  Recently, e-commerce on the Internet has dramatically reduced the importance of location for business.  Corporations can be located in almost any country and still deliver a variety of goods and services anywhere in the world.  What other reasons do we use technology and how have those affected the U.S. and world economy?
2 8-12 Mathematics Calculus 21 Students understand the algorithms involved in Simpson’s rule and Newton’s method. They use calculators or computers or both to approximate integrals numerically. Some calculus problems are not solvable using an analytic approach.  The computer's ability to quickly compute numerical solutions is one reason we use technology.  In World War II, the military needed to calculate trajectories for cannons and anti-aircraft guns.  Some of the first electronic computers were invented to perform these calculations.  Initially, the computers were used behind the lines to calculate numeric tables, which could be used at the battlefront.  Later, computers linked with radar were deployed on trucks to control anti-aircraft guns.  They were very effective in Britain for shooting down the German rockets headed for population centers.  The rockets were too fast for planes to intercept, so the only way to save lives of civilians in the cities was to be able to solve numerical integration problems quickly.  Warfare, defense, communication, entertainment, medicine, exploration, and trade are just some of the reasons we use technology.
3 5 English-Language Arts Reading 2.3 Discern main ideas and concepts presented in texts, identifying and assessing evidence that supports those ideas. These historical / biographical stories tell of the invention of a chain of world-transforming technologies.  Students will look for a problem that was recognized by each inventor, what motivated the inventor, and what personality characteristics the inventor had (and might share with the student).
3 5 English-Language Arts Reading 2.4 Draw inferences, conclusions, or generalizations about text and support them with textual evidence and prior knowledge. These historical / biographical stories tell of the invention of a chain of world-transforming technologies.  Students will look for a problem that was recognized by each inventor, what motivated the inventor, and what personality characteristics the inventor had (and might share with the student).
3 5 Science Physical Science 1cd Elements and their combinations account for all the varied types of matter in the world.  As a basis for understanding this concept:  (c) Students know metals have properties in common, such as high electrical and thermal conductivity… (d) Students know that each element is made of one kind of atom and that the elements are organized in the periodic table by their chemical properties. The One Thread in History story on the transistor relates how scientists knew that germanium could rectify electric current and chose to experiment with silicon.  They made this leap based on the periodic table of the elements, which shows the two elements in the same column and suggests that properties of such elements may be similar.  Understanding how to read the periodic table of the elements helped us to invent transistors, which made possible portable radios, personal computers, cellular phones, and MP3 players (e.g., the iPod).
3 6 History-Social Science World History & Geography: Ancient Civilizations 6.2.2 Trace the development of agricultural techniques that permitted the production of economic surplus and the emergence of cities as centers of culture and power. Technologies such as the plow allowed people to grow more food than they needed to eat.  This allowed them to use the surplus to trade, which allowed others to leave farming altogether and specialize in producing something to be traded, like pottery.  This specialization has been a major source of technology.
3 7 History-Social Science World History & Geography: Medieval & Early Modern Times 7.3.2 Describe agricultural, technological, and commercial developments during the Tang and Sung periods. These allowed greater specialization, which led to more rapid development of agriculture, technology, and commercial tools.  This specialization has been a major source of technology.
3 8 History-Social Science US History & Geography: Growth & Conflict 8.12.9 Name the significant inventors and their inventions and identify how they improved the quality of life (e.g., Thomas Edison, Alexander Graham Bell, Orville and Wilbur Wright). Analyze the biographies of significant inventors for characteristics of personality and circumstance.  What motivated them?  What did inventors have in common?  What traits are shared by people that we know today?  Can you predict who will invent something important?
3 8 Science Physical Science 7c Students know substances can be classified by their properties, including their melting temperature, density, hardness, and thermal and electrical conductivity. The One Thread in History story on the transistor relates how scientists knew that germanium could rectify electric current and chose to experiment with silicon.  They made this leap based on the periodic table of the elements, which shows the two elements in the same column and suggests that properties of such elements may be similar.  Understanding how to read the periodic table of the elements helped us to invent transistors, which made possible portable radios, personal computers, cellular phones, and MP3 players (e.g., the iPod).
3 10 History-Social Science World History, Culture, & Geography: The Modern World 10.3.2 Examine how scientific and technological changes and new forms of energy brought about massive social, economic, and cultural change (e.g., biographies of James Watt, Eli Whitney, Henry Bessemer, Louis Pasteur, Thomas Edison).  The seeds of massive social, economic, and cultural change often include technological inventions.  The inventors were motivated by curiosity, wealth, desire to help others, or desire to leave their mark on the world and they were armed with persistence, knowledge, insight, connections, and luck.  Look for familiar characteristics of personality and circumstance in the great inventors of the modern world
3 10 History-Social Science World History, Culture, & Geography: The Modern World 10.3.5 Understand the connections among natural resources, entrepreneurship, labor and capital in an industrial economy The many, and often surprising, ways that forces in our world connect explain much of how our world works.  Technology is a thread that can aid in understanding the connections.  Natural resources critical to the Industrial Revolution were energy sources, such as timber, coal and waterpower, and materials, such as metals.  What technology was necessary to exploit these natural resources?  Entrepreneurship relied on manufacturing technology as well as the methods of its use, which some classify as a technology.  Capital was more readily available in the Industrial Revolution than any time previous.  What technologies connected and managed capital?
3 11 History-Social Science US History & Geography: Continuity & Change in the 20th Century 11.8.7 Describe the effects on society and the economy of technological developments since 1945, including the computer revolution, changes in communication, advances in medicine, and improvements in agricultural technology.  Technology does not exist in a vacuum.  It affects many things, including the economy and social patterns, which, in turn, affect technology.  The computers built for military purposes in World War II found utility in business and space exploration after the war.  Space exploration created a pressing need for miniaturization of electronics and provided satellite platforms for global communication.  Miniaturized electronics changed how hospital patients could be monitored and cared for, as well as making possible pace-makers.  Satellites provided timely data on agricultural and weather patterns important for agricultural planning.  Radar, developed during the war to detecting the range and direction of airplanes and rockets, suggested a technique for measuring the structure of microscopic objects; in the quest to generate wavelengths short enough, the laser was invented, which improved communications and allowed for new forms of surgery on cancer, cataracts, and near-sightedness.  X-ray diffraction, another way to measure the structure of microscopic objects was key to describing the structure of DNA, basis for all life; this led to genetic analysis and engineering of plants and animals.  Computers gained a prominent role in genetic research in the decoding of the human genome, the blueprint of the human body, which has large medical implications.  Pick a post-war technological development and trace some of its effects.
3 8-12 Mathematics Calculus 4.2 Students demonstrate an understanding of the interpretation of the derivative as an instantaneous rate of change. Students can use derivatives to solve a variety of problems from physics, chemistry, economics, and so forth that involve the rate of change of a function. Calculus was developed in order to explain movement of objects.  One of the "inventors" of calculus (not a tangible technology, but a technique) was Isaac Newton, who knew of the telescopic observations that Galileo had made of the moons of Jupiter.  According to one story, Newton watched  an apple fall to the ground and reasoned that the force acting on the apple must be the same as acting on a moon.  To demonstrate this, he needed to be able to describe the motion of objects using mathematics, but the algebra of the time was inadequate.  Because of a technology that allowed Galileo to see distant objects, a chance observation of a falling apple, and the philosophical belief that physical occurrences should be describable with mathematics, Newton developed calculus.  Technology other than telescopes influenced calculus, as well.  Measuring time became increasingly accurate with discovery the pendulum, allowing rate of change to be studied empirically and encouraging development of a mathematical model.
4 8-12 Mathematics Algebra 1 24.1 Students explain the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning and identify and provide examples of each.  Boolean Algebra: George Boole developed an algebra, called Boolean algebra, that uses a base-two numbering system, one and zero or true and false.  Years later, inventors of the digital electronic computer discovered his work and made it the basis for the math that describes how all digital electronics operate.  This includes computers, digital cellular phones, CD players, handheld electronic games, and video games.  Boolean functions are based on just three simple functions called AND, OR, and NOT (there are various "elemental" sets and this one is simple but not minimal).  The value of the AND function is True if all of its arguments or inputs are True.  The value of the OR function is True if one or more of its arguments or inputs are True.  The value of the NOT function is True if its argument or input is False.  The power of Boolean functions comes of their combination.  A computer uses millions of these functions, also called logic gates, in intricate combinations.
4 9-12 Science Physics 5d Students know the properties of transistors and the role of transistors in electric circuits The Mystery Boxes activity demonstrates the digital use of transistors as switches.  It also shows how such simple switches can be combined to form more complex functions, e.g. a burglar alarm.  Mystery boxes are, in effect, logic gates, which in modern computers and digital consumer goods (e.g. iPod, cellular phones) are each composed of a few transistors.  This activity shows how something as simple as a transistor that switches electricity on or off can be combined into fantastically complex systems.
5 7 History-Social Science World History & Geography: Medieval & Early Modern Times 7.8.4 Describe the growth and effect of ways of disseminating information (e.g., the ability to manufacture paper, translation of the Bible into the vernacular, printing).  Technology builds on technology.  Papyrus provided the best writing material for a millennium before the manufacture of rag paper was developed.  Monks hand-copying books, writing with quills, was the most common way to produce books until printing was refined by Gutenburg.  Information is an enduring thread from the genetic coding in our DNA, to stories made possible by language, books made possible by written language, books printed on paper, and to the present day in computer networks.  The growth and effect of ways to disseminate information further improved those ways by sharing information on the techniques:  along with Bibles, the printing presses created books explaining how to build and use printing presses.  With more printing presses being built because people know how, more Bibles and other books can be distributed.  This makes it worthwhile learning how to read, so people do, and demand for more and different books increases.  This makes it more economical to build new and better presses because there are more people to buy the books produced.  This same, self-reinforcing growth turned the Internet from the domain of a few thousand scientists into a shopping and communicating medium for tens of millions.
5 7 Mathematics Number Sense 2.0 Students use exponents, powers, and roots and use exponents in working with fractions. Some technologies change at exponential rate (e.g. number of transistors on an integrated circuit, communication bandwidth, rate of sequencing DNA).  In the activity Calculate Time to Build a Microprocessor, we show how the impact of exponential growth.
5 8 Mathematics Algebra 1 24.1 Students explain the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning and identify and provide examples of each.  Logarithms: Gordon Moore, an inventor of the integrated circuit, noted that the speed and the number of transistors on each integrated circuit could be doubled, due to manufacturing improvements, every 12 to 14 months.  If the value of an integrated circuit is the product of speed and size, what is the rate of change of value?
5 8 Science Investigation & Experimentation 9g Distinguish between linear and nonlinear relationships on a graph of data. Students develop an understanding of how Moore's Law (which concerns the periodic doubling of the number of transistors on an integrated circuit) impacts the technology they use.  Students calculate how long it would take to assemble a microprocessor using pre-integrated circuit (IC) techniques.  The teacher may have students graph the patterns of this exponential growth against more familiar linear growth.
5 10 History-Social Science World History, Culture, & Geography: The Modern World 10.11 Students analyze the integration of countries into the world economy, and the information, technological and communications revolutions (e.g., television, satellites, computers). Revolutions, whether political or technological, mean dramatic and rapid change.  How does technology change and why does the change become so rapid?  Technological change appears to accelerate because new technologies are used to create even newer.  Having these new tools makes it possible to create more complex things faster.  One may find a parallel in evolution, where progress from "primordial soup" to single-cell life and then on to multi-cell life took orders of magnitude longer than for higher-order life to produce homo sapiens.  Or one may find a parallel in compound interest, which leads to large bank accounts growing ever faster because the interest earned along the way, itself, starts to earn interest.  Research the histories of television, satellites, and computers and look for the lineage of technologies that built on one another.
5 11 History-Social Science US History & Geography: Continuity & Change in the 20th Century 11.7.6 Describe the major developments in aviation, weaponry, communication, and medicine and the war’s impact on the location of American industry and use of resources. Conflict is a common motivator of technological change.  What was the state-of-the-art in aviation, weaponry, communication, and medical technology at the start of World War II?  What were the recognized shortcomings?  Analyze the developments in each of these areas in terms of support (financial and social), supporting technology (e.g. metals, plastics, manufacturing, electronics), and the idea.  Were there other factors that explain why developments came when they did, rather than before World War II or much later?  The first electronic computers were invented in World War II.  In England, they were used to break Nazi communication codes.  In the U.S., they were used to calculate ballistics, which is the trajectory of a projectile, like an anti-aircraft shell.  How did the focus that World War II brought on certain technology change the world we live in?
5 12 History-Social Science Principles of Economics 12.2.8 Explain the role of profit as the incentive to the entrepreneurs in a market economy. Profit and the protection of it through domestic patent protection of intellectual property is a significant factor in the U.S. being a prime source of technological innovation.  Technology changes when an idea comes together with support (financial or social) and supporting technology.  Profit is an element of financial support and, in a market economy, the most common.  Entrepreneurs engage in risky activities and profit is a compensation for risk.  Analyze the role of profit in major technological inventions of the past century.
5 8-12 Mathematics Probability & Statistics 1.0 Students know the definition of the notion of independent events and can use the rules for addition, multiplication, and complementation to solve for probabilities of particular events in finite sample spaces.  #3.0 Students demonstrate an understanding of the notion of discrete random variables by using them to solve for the probabilities of outcomes, such as the probability of the occurrence of five heads in 14 coin tosses. The integrated circuit, which is the biggest reason that electronics has dropped in price year after year, was invented because wiring together hundreds or thousands of transistors took too much time and the probability of a mistake increased with the size of the circuit.  The problem of all of these interconnections was called "The Tyranny of Numbers."  Integrated circuits are layered pieces of semiconductor that are created with the equivalent of many transistors on them.  Transistors can be like switches, turning an electrical signal on or off, or can be like an amplifier of an electrical signal.  A Pentium II microprocessor contains about 7,500,000 transistors.  If you manually wired one transistor each second, it is a simple problem of arithmetic to figure out how long it would take to assemble a Pentium II.  If there is a probability P of a wiring mistake being made on each transistor, what is the probability that a Pentium II would be assembled correctly?
6 5 English-Language Arts Writing 2.1 Write narratives: (a) Establish plot, point of view, setting, and conflict.  (b) Show, rather than tell, the events of the story. After identifying many electricity-dependent technologies they use, students write an autobiographical essay on an imaginary day in their life without electricity.  Provided with a potential conflict (living without electricity) and a setting, students can develop all the elements of a narrative.
6 6 English-Language Arts Writing 2.1 Write narratives: (a) Establish and develop a plot and setting and present a point of view that is appropriate to the stories. (b) Include sensory details and concrete language to develop plot and character. (c) Use a range of narrative devices (e.g., dialogue, suspense). After identifying many electricity-dependent technologies they use, students write an autobiographical essay on an imaginary day in their life without electricity.  Provided with a potential conflict (living without electricity) and a setting, students can develop all the elements of a narrative.
6 7 English-Language Arts Writing 2.1 Write fictional or autobiographical narratives: (a) Develop a standard plot line (having a beginning, conflict, rising action, climax, and denouement) and point of view.  (b) Develop complex major and minor characters and a definite setting.  (c) Use a range of appropriate strategies (e.g., dialogue; suspense; naming of specific narrative action, including movement, gestures and expressions). After identifying many electricity-dependent technologies they use, students write an autobiographical essay on an imaginary day in their life without electricity.  Provided with a potential conflict (living without electricity) and a setting, students can develop all the elements of a narrative.
6 7 History-Social Science World History & Geography: Medieval & Early Modern Times 7.10.2 Understand the significance of the new scientific theories (e.g., those of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Newton) and the significance of new inventions (e.g., the telescope, microscope, thermometer, barometer) Discoveries made with these technologies changed how people viewed their place in the Universe.  For instance, the telescope showed that moons orbited Jupiter, contradicting the Church-enforced belief that everything circled the Earth.  In predicting the motion of the moons and planets a theory of gravitation was developed that included all objects equally, whether moons or apples.  This changed the common view that celestial objects were subject to wholly different rules than terrestrial.
6 7 History-Social Science World History & Geography: Medieval & Early Modern Times 7.3.5 Trace the historic influence of such discoveries as tea, the manufacture of paper, wood block printing, the compass, and gunpowder. The inventors of the methods of tea cultivation and preparation, the manufacture of paper, wood block printing, the compass, and gunpowder could not have imagined the far-reaching impacts of their inventions.  How did these inventions change geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures?  How have we been affected by these inventions?  How might we be different if these technologies were never invented?]
6 8 English-Language Arts Writing 2.1 Write biographies, autobiographies, short stories, or narratives: (a) Relate a clear, coherent indicident, event, or situation by using well-chosen details.  (b) Reveal the significance of, or the writer's attitude about, the subject.  (c) Employ narrative and descriptive strategies (e.g., relevant dialogue, specific action, physical description, background description, comparison or contrast of characters). After identifying many electricity-dependent technologies they use, students write an autobiographical essay on an imaginary day in their life without electricity.  Provided with a potential conflict (living without electricity) and a setting, students can develop all the elements of a narrative.
6 8 History-Social Science US History & Geography: Growth & Conflict 8.6.1 Discuss the influence of industrialization and technological developments on the region, including human modification of the landscape and how physical geography shaped human actions (e.g., growth of cities, deforestation, farming, mineral extraction).  Technology shaped human actions by making things possible:  growth of cities, deforestation, farming, mineral extraction.  People may pass through a psychological cycle when encountering new technology.  At first the new technology presents a threat to convention.  Then pioneers adopt it and explore its implications.  Later, use may become widespread, leading to a general amnesia that the technology ever appeared strange.  How did technology affect the paths of the American people in the late 19th Century?
6 10 History-Social Science World History, Culture, & Geography: The Modern World 10.11 Students analyze the integration of countries into the world economy, and the information, technological and communications revolutions (e.g., television, satellites, computers). Technology changes people and countries.  The information, technological, and communications revolutions changed how economies of countries operate by effectively shrinking distances between them, allowing information and control to move near the speed of light.  This leads to investments from one country in another, to goods manufactured in one country for another, and to economic booms and busts to affect one country from another.  Pick two countries and research how their economies are connected by technology.
6 12 History-Social Science Principles of American Democracy 12.6.4 Describe the means that citizens use to participate in the political process (e.g., voting, campaigning, lobbying, filing a legal challenge, demonstrating, petitioning, picketing, running for political office). The Internet, and the web in particular, has assumed a role in political campaigns.  Major candidates maintain websites to distribute information, to recruit volunteers, and to solicit donations.  As web-based activities become more common, there is a growing expectation that any information one would want on a candidate should be available any time from any Internet-connected computer.  Primaries, if not final elections, have already been conducted with voting on the web rather than at a physical voting location.  This may change the demographics of voter turnout and how political campaigns are run.
7 5 English-Language Arts Writing 2.1 Write narratives: (a) Establish plot, point of view, setting, and conflict.  (b) Show, rather than tell, the events of the story. This activity builds on the One Thread in History stories introduced in How Does It Change?  In groups, students perform a self-written skit based on the historical events in the stories.  In preparing to perform, students may be instructed to document such elements as plot, point of view, setting, and conflict.  The exercise requires that they convey to their classmates in the audience what was invented, why, what the people were like, what motivated them, and what made them successful.
7 7 History-Social Science World History & Geography: Medieval & Early Modern Times 7.11.2 Discuss the exchanges of plants, animals, technology, culture, and ideas among Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries and the major economic and social effects on each continent.  Those who traded goods among Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas carried technology, seeding it in new areas.  This brought together technologies in ways that allowed for new inventions.  New technologies were influenced by the traders much as by those who were credited with inventing them.
7 8 History-Social Science US History & Geography: Growth & Conflict 8.12.9 Name the significant inventors and their inventions and identify how they improved the quality of life (e.g., Thomas Edison, Alexander Graham Bell, Orville and Wilbur Wright). Analyze the biographies of significant inventors for characteristics of personality and circumstance.  What motivated them?  What did inventors have in common?  What traits are shared by people that we know today?  Can you predict who will invent something important?]
7 10 History-Social Science World History, Culture, & Geography: The Modern World 10.3.2 Examine how scientific and technological changes and new forms of energy brought about massive social, economic, and cultural change (e.g., the inventions and discoveries of James Watt, Eli Whitney, Henry Bessemer, Louis Pasteur, Thomas Edison). Technological changes are brought about by people acting in many roles, not just inventor.  Search the biographies of James Watt, Eli Whitney, Henry Bessemer, Louis Pasteur, Thomas Edison, and other great inventors from the Industrial Revolution for these other roles.  The drive to exert influence and control is basic to human nature.  When other choices are not apparent, young people may turn to socially-damaging roles that include violence and destruction (e.g. tagging to show ones presence and leave a mark beyond ones existence).  While the role of inventing may not be attractive are appear within reach for many young people, the roles of developing, supporting, presenting, communicating, marketing, teaching, and voting may.  Pick a major inventor, research the other roles of influence, and decide how the technology and its impact on society, economy, and culture would have been different without those.
8 8 History-Social Science US History & Geography: Growth & Conflict 8.12.9 Name the significant inventors and their inventions and identify how they improved the quality of life (e.g., Thomas Edison, Alexander Graham Bell, Orville and Wilbur Wright). How did inventions in transportation, communication, agriculture, industry, education, and medicine improve the quality of life during the Industrial Revolution?  What benefits that we enjoy today originate in this period?  Have some benefits available only to the rich of the 19th Century become widely available in the 20th?  Are there benefits we enjoy that even the most powerful of the 19th Century did not have?
8 10 History-Social Science World History, Culture, & Geography: The Modern World 10.11 Students analyze the integration of countries into the world economy, and the information, technological and communications revolutions (e.g., television, satellites, computers).  Three technologies, television, satellites, and computers, have brought major benefits, which include health, education, safety, range of choice, and—very broadly—our lives.  Research the effects of these technologies.  What benefits do we take for granted today?  How would our lives be different if we didn't have them?  Draw cost bubbles and a PMI chart for this technology.
8 12 History-Social Science Principles of Economics 12.1.2 Explain opportunity cost and marginal benefit and marginal cost. Decisions about technology are often based on cost.  While policy decisions may be made for political or emotional reasons, economic analysis is an important factor, if not the most important.  Consider decisions on energy production. Choosing among nuclear, fossil fuel, hydroelectric, solar, etc., is choosing among technologies with specific costs and benefits.  Costs include construction, operation, fuel, decommissioning, and potential accidents. Use economics principles to evaluate costs and benefits of a technological decision.]
8 12 History-Social Science Principles of Economics 12.1.3 Identify the difference between monetary and non-monetary incentives and how changes in incentives cause changes in behavior. The costs of technological decisions include money, time, health, jobs, economy, fairness, sustainability, environment, advances in knowledge, future benefits, culture, etc.   Decisions often swing on issues beyond those directly financial.  Explore what factors influence your decisions.
8 8-12 Mathematics Probability & Statistics 1.0 Students know the definition of the notion of independent events and can use the rules for addition, multiplication, and complementation to solve for probabilities of particular events in finite sample spaces. The costs of technology may be evaluated by considering what negative outcomes may occur and factoring the severity of the result with its probability.  Compare transportation by car and airplane.  According to Information Please Almanac, "In 2000, the passenger death rate in automobiles was 0.80 per 100 million passenger-miles. The rates for buses, trains, and airlines were 0.05, 0.03, and 0.02, respectively."  Document any assumptions necessary and evaluate the safer form of transportation.  How would you evaluate nuclear and fossil fuel sources of energy?  List possible events and identify as dependent or independent.  Assign variables for the probability of each event and document assumptions concerning dependent events.  Show the formulas you would use to compare the costs of these two energy sources.
8 8-12 Mathematics Probability & Statistics 3.0 Students demonstrate an understanding of the notion of discrete random variables by using them to solve for the probabilities of outcomes, such as the probability of the occurrence of five heads in 14 coin tosses. The costs of technology may be evaluated by considering what negative outcomes may occur and factoring the severity of the result with its probability.  Compare transportation by car and airplane.  According to Information Please Almanac, "In 2000, the passenger death rate in automobiles was 0.80 per 100 million passenger-miles. The rates for buses, trains, and airlines were 0.05, 0.03, and 0.02, respectively."  Document any assumptions necessary and evaluate the safer form of transportation.  How would you evaluate nuclear and fossil fuel sources of energy?  List possible events and identify as dependent or independent.  Assign variables for the probability of each event and document assumptions concerning dependent events.  Show the formulas you would use to compare the costs of these two energy sources.
8 9-12 Science Investigation & Experimentation 1m Investigate a science-based societal issue by researching the literature, analyzing data, and communicating the findings.  Examples include irradiation of food, cloning of animals, by somatic cell nuclear transfer, choice of energy sources, and land and water use decisions in California. Students that have completed the ICE-9 curriculum have then used the ICE-9 questions as a structure for research projects.  A subject like "irradiation of food" is vast, so students need a framework to focus their investigation.  ICE-9 guides them to identify what is irradation of food, why do we use it, how does it work, what are its costs & benefits, etc.  Investigating science-based societal issues is one of the most compelling reasons for ICE-9, the critical understanding and evaluation of technology.  Understanding and evaluating is good; acting on this knowledge to improve ones world is noble.
9 5 English-Language Arts Reading 2.3 Discern main ideas and concepts presented in texts, identifying and assessing evidence that supports those ideas. Nanotechnology essay.  This two-page reading on nanotechnology gives an overview of the emerging technology of manipulating molecules.  Without referring to the ICE-9 questions, it answers them, giving background on nanotechnology, how it is changing, what its costs & benefits are, and how we evaluate it.  This wide-ranging material provides fertile ground for students to discern concepts, identify and assess evidence, and and relate this to other sources.  Because nanotechnology promise science fiction magic in our future, students may be particularly engaged.
9 5 English-Language Arts Reading 2.3 Discern main ideas and concepts presented in texts, identifying and assessing evidence that supports those ideas. Each of the six Discover Values stories tells of a group, a technology, and the values that group uses to decide if that technology is good or bad.  Students compare and contrast those values with their own.  Students analyze what positive and negative aspects those groups would recognize in a technology.
9 5 English-Language Arts Reading 2.4 Draw inferences, conclusions, or generalizations about text and support them with textual evidence and prior knowledge. Each of the six Discover Values stories tells of a group, a technology, and the values that group uses to decide if that technology is good or bad.  Students compare and contrast those values with their own.  Students analyze what positive and negative aspects those groups would recognize in a technology.
9 5 English-Language Arts Writing 1.2 Create multiple-paragraph expository compositions: (a) Establish a topic, important ideas, or events in sequence or chronological order. (b) Provide details and transitional expressions that link one paragraph to another in a clear line of thought. (c) Offer a concluding paragraph that summarizes important ideas and details. This is a persuasive composition with a twist.  Instead of presenting their own viewpoint, students read about a value system(e.g., "survival" determines whether Robinson Crusoe evaluated technology as good or bad, as "profit" similarly motivates commercial corporations) and then write about a technology in that reading.  For structure, they develop a Plus-Minus-Interesting (PMI) chart and base the core paragraphs on each of these three areas, adding introductory and concluding paragraphs.
9 5 English-Language Arts Writing 2.4 Write a persuasive letters or compositions: (a) State a clear position in support of a proposal. (b) Support a position with relevant evidence. (c) Follow a simple organizational pattern. (d) Address reader concerns. This is a persuasive composition with a twist.  Instead of presenting their own viewpoint, students read about a value system(e.g., "survival" determines whether Robinson Crusoe evaluated technology as good or bad, as "profit" similarly motivates commercial corporations) and then write about a technology in that reading.  For structure, they develop a Plus-Minus-Interesting (PMI) chart and base the core paragraphs on each of these three areas, adding introductory and concluding paragraphs.
9 5 English-Language Arts Writing 2.4 Write a persuasive letters or compositions: (a) State a clear position in support of a proposal. (b) Support a position with relevant evidence. (c) Follow a simple organizational pattern. (d) Address reader concerns. Based on the two-page nanotechnology reading, students write a persuasive speech to the United Nations, making the case for or against development of nanotechnology.  Evidence can be drawn from both the reading and student's experience.  This is conducted both as a pre-test and a post-test.  In the post-test, ICE-9 may emerge as a useful structure for the student's composition.
9 6 English-Language Arts Reading 2.3 Connect and clarify main ideas by identifying their relationships to other sources and related topics. Nanotechnology essay.  This two-page reading on nanotechnology gives an overview of the emerging technology of manipulating molecules.  Without referring to the ICE-9 questions, it answers them, giving background on nanotechnology, how it is changing, what its costs & benefits are, and how we evaluate it.  This wide-ranging material provides fertile ground for students to discern concepts, identify and assess evidence, and and relate this to other sources.  Because nanotechnology promise science fiction magic in our future, students may be particularly engaged.
9 6 English-Language Arts Reading 2.3 Connect and clarify main ideas by identifying their relationships to other sources and related topics. Each of the six Discover Values stories tells of a group, a technology, and the values that group uses to decide if that technology is good or bad.  Students compare and contrast those values with their own.  Students analyze what positive and negative aspects those groups would recognize in a technology.
9 6 English-Language Arts Writing 1.2 Create multiple-paragraph expository compositions: (a) Engage the intereste of the reader and state a clear purpose. (b) Develop the topic with supporting details and precise verbs, nouns, and adjectives to paint a visual image in the mind of the reader. (c) Conclude with a detailed summary linked to the purpose of the composition. This is a persuasive composition with a twist.  Instead of presenting their own viewpoint, students read about a value system(e.g., "survival" determines whether Robinson Crusoe evaluated technology as good or bad, as "profit" similarly motivates commercial corporations) and then write about a technology in that reading.  For structure, they develop a Plus-Minus-Interesting (PMI) chart and base the core paragraphs on each of these three areas, adding introductory and concluding paragraphs.
9 6 English-Language Arts Writing 2.5 Write persuasive compositions: (a) State a clear position on a proposition or proposal. (b) Support the position with organized and relevant evidence. (c) Anticipate and address reader concerns and counterarguments. This is a persuasive composition with a twist.  Instead of presenting their own viewpoint, students read about a value system(e.g., "survival" determines whether Robinson Crusoe evaluated technology as good or bad, as "profit" similarly motivates commercial corporations) and then write about a technology in that reading.  For structure, they develop a Plus-Minus-Interesting (PMI) chart and base the core paragraphs on each of these three areas, adding introductory and concluding paragraphs.
9 6 English-Language Arts Writing 2.5 Write persuasive compositions: (a) State a clear position on a proposition or proposal. (b) Support the position with organized and relevant evidence. (c) Anticipate and address reader concerns and counterarguments. Based on the two-page nanotechnology reading, students write a persuasive speech to the United Nations, making the case for or against development of nanotechnology.  Evidence can be drawn from both the reading and student's experience.  This is conducted both as a pre-test and a post-test.  In the post-test, ICE-9 may emerge as a useful structure for the student's composition.
9 6 Science Earth Science 6a Students know the utility of energy sources is determined by factors that are involved in converting these sources to useful forms and the consequences of the conversion process. The Discover Values story on Fairness (Ecologic) gives the example of the Hells Canyon hydroelectric dams.  The story identifies factors in evaluating a hydroelectric dam.  Discuss tradeoffs of global warming, air pollution, salmon diversion, reliance on foreign sources of energy.
9 7 English-Language Arts Reading 2.0 Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material.  They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose. Nanotechnology essay.  This two-page reading on nanotechnology gives an overview of the emerging technology of manipulating molecules.  Without referring to the ICE-9 questions, it answers them, giving background on nanotechnology, how it is changing, what its costs & benefits are, and how we evaluate it.  This wide-ranging material provides fertile ground for students to discern concepts, identify and assess evidence, and and relate this to other sources.  Because nanotechnology promise science fiction magic in our future, students may be particularly engaged.
9 7 English-Language Arts Writing 2.4 Write persuasive compositions: (a) State a clear position in support of a proposition or proposal. (b) Describe the points in support of the position, employing well-articulated evidence. (c) Anticipate and address reader concerns and counterarguments. This is a persuasive composition with a twist.  Instead of presenting their own viewpoint, students read about a value system(e.g., "survival" determines whether Robinson Crusoe evaluated technology as good or bad, as "profit" similarly motivates commercial corporations) and then write about a technology in that reading.  For structure, they develop a Plus-Minus-Interesting (PMI) chart and base the core paragraphs on each of these three areas, adding introductory and concluding paragraphs.
9 7 English-Language Arts Writing 2.4 Write persuasive compositions: (a) State a clear position in support of a proposition or proposal. (b) Describe the points in support of the position, employing well-articulated evidence. (c) Anticipate and address reader concerns and counterarguments. Based on the two-page nanotechnology reading, students write a persuasive speech to the United Nations, making the case for or against development of nanotechnology.  Evidence can be drawn from both the reading and student's experience.  This is conducted both as a pre-test and a post-test.  In the post-test, ICE-9 may emerge as a useful structure for the student's composition.
9 8 English-Language Arts Reading 2.0 Students read and understand grade-level-appropriate material.  They describe and connect the essential ideas, arguments, and perspectives of the text by using their knowledge of text structure, organization, and purpose. Nanotechnology essay.  This two-page reading on nanotechnology gives an overview of the emerging technology of manipulating molecules.  Without referring to the ICE-9 questions, it answers them, giving background on nanotechnology, how it is changing, what its costs & benefits are, and how we evaluate it.  This wide-ranging material provides fertile ground for students to discern concepts, identify and assess evidence, and and relate this to other sources.  Because nanotechnology promise science fiction magic in our future, students may be particularly engaged.
9 8 English-Language Arts Writing 2.4 Write persuasive compositions: (a) Include a well-defined thesis (i.e., one that makes a clear and knowledgeable judgment). (b) Present detailed evidence, examples, and reasoning to support arguments, differentiating between facts and opinions. (c) Provide details, reasons, and examples, arranging them effectively by anticipating reader concerns and counterarguments. This is a persuasive composition with a twist.  Instead of presenting their own viewpoint, students read about a value system(e.g., "survival" determines whether Robinson Crusoe evaluated technology as good or bad, as "profit" similarly motivates commercial corporations) and then write about a technology in that reading.  For structure, they develop a Plus-Minus-Interesting (PMI) chart and base the core paragraphs on each of these three areas, adding introductory and concluding paragraphs.
9 8 English-Language Arts Writing 2.4 Write persuasive compositions: (a) Include a well-defined thesis (i.e., one that makes a clear and knowledgeable judgment). (b) Present detailed evidence, examples, and reasoning to support arguments, differentiating between facts and opinions. (c) Provide details, reasons, and examples, arranging them effectively by anticipating reader concerns and counterarguments. Based on the two-page nanotechnology reading, students write a persuasive speech to the United Nations, making the case for or against development of nanotechnology.  Evidence can be drawn from both the reading and student's experience.  This is conducted both as a pre-test and a post-test.  In the post-test, ICE-9 may emerge as a useful structure for the student's composition.
9 11 History-Social Science US History & Geography: Continuity & Change in the 20th Century 11.5.6 Trace the growth and effects of radio and movies and their role in the worldwide diffusion of popular culture Popular culture both binds the peoples of the world and erases individual culture.  Whether there is merit in having CNN news broadcasts and Coca Cola bottles familiar in almost any part of the world or not is a matter of individual viewpoint.  Information both educates and indoctrinates.  The question of the impacts of worldwide diffusion of popular culture is a new one.  Until roughly the 15th Century, world transportation was extremely limited.  Even when Spain exported Catholicism to the New World, the impact was a shadow of radio and movies.  Consider the pluses, the minuses, and the interesting aspects of this global effect.
9 11 History-Social Science US History & Geography: Continuity & Change in the 20th Century 11.7.7 Discuss the decision to drop atomic bombs and the consequences of the decision (Hiroshima and Nagasaki).  Technology extends our abilities.  Clubs and stone tools were used as both offensive and defensive weapons.  As the technology of weaponry has advanced, a recurrent belief has been that the formerly-unimaginable destructiveness of the new weapons would so frighten mankind that conflict would become a thing of the past.  This was true in the age of the Roman Empire when the ballister, a combination bow and catapult, was invented.  It was true in the Middle Ages when the crossbow was invented.  When Alfred Nobel, founder of the Nobel Prize, invented dynamite, he thought that it might end warfare.  The detonation of the first atomic bomb inspired the lead scientist responsible for its development, J. Robert Oppenheimer, and others to devote themselves to the pursuit of peace.  The atomic bombs dropped on Japan killed many thousands of civilians.  Arguments have been made that the alternative would have been a land invasion that would have cost many thousands of lives, too.  Explore the many reasons for and against using the atomic bomb in these instances.
9 9-12 Science Investigation & Experimentation 1m Investigate a science-based societal issue by researching the literature, analyzing data, and communicating the findings.  Examples include irradiation of food, cloning of animals, by somatic cell nuclear transfer, choice of energy sources, and land and water use decisions in California Students that have completed the ICE-9 curriculum have then used the ICE-9 questions as a structure for research projects.  A subject like "irradiation of food" is vast, so students need a framework to focus their investigation.  ICE-9 guides them to identify what is irradation of food, why do we use it, how does it work, what are its costs & benefits, etc.  Investigating science-based societal issues is one of the most compelling reasons for ICE-9, the critical understanding and evaluation of technology.  Understanding and evaluating is good; acting on this knowledge to improve ones world is noble.

 

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Teaching Young People to Think About Technology